Differences in meaning between the to-infinitive and ing form правило

Презентация к уроку по английскому языку (8 класс) на тему:
The to-infinitive or -ing form, 8 класс

Инфинитив – это неопределенная форма глагола, которая отвечает на вопросы Что делать? Что сделать?

Инфинитив бывает с частицей to (to-infinitive) и без частицы to (bare infinitive), его еще называют «голый инфинитив»:

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The to-infinitive or — ing form

The -ing form is used : After the verbs : love, like, enjoy, prefer, dislike, hate For example : Liza prefers dancing alone. After the verbs: spend, waste, lose (time, money,etc ) For example: He spends all time playing computer games.

The -ing form is used : After the verbs : hear, listen to, notice, see, watch, feel to describe an incomplete action. I saw John waiting for the taxi. After the verbs: admit, appreciate, avoid, consider, deny, fancy, go (for activities), imagine, mind, miss, practise , prevent, quit, save, suggest. You should continue studying English.

The -ing form is used : After expression such as: be busy, it’s no use, it’s no good, it’s (not) worth, what’s the use of, can’t help, there’s no point (in), can’t stand, have difficulty (in), have trouble. It’s no use complaining all the time. think of, apologise for. I apologised for being later.

The -ing form is used : After the preposition to with verbs: object to, look forward to, be used to , in addition to. After prepositions : a fter, on, by, before, without, instead of, besides He went to school without eating any breakfast.

The to-infinitive form is used: After would like, would love, would prefer. For example: I would love to come to your party After certain verbs that refer to the future (agree, appear, decide, expect, hope, pian , promise, refuse, want) For example: I want you to come.

The to-infinitive is used: After too / enough After verbs and expressions such as ask, deside , explain, learn, find out. After ajectives which describe feelings / emotions, express willingness / un willingness or refer to a person character

The infinitive without to is used: After modal verbs (Sally can speak English) After the verbs: let, make, see, hear, feel (My brother made me apologise ) After had better and would rather . (You had better put a jacket on)

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Differences in meaning between the to-infinitive and ing form правило

The two groups of verbs below can be followed either by the gerund or by the infinitive. Usually this has no effect on the meaning, but with some verbs there is a clear difference in meaning. Verbs marked * can also be followed by a that-clause.

Ниже указаны две группы глаголов, после которых может стоять и герундий, и инфинитив. Обычно это совершенно не влияет на смысл, но для некоторых глаголов всё же чётко влияет. После глаголов , помеченных * , может также идти that-придаточное (придаточное в сложносочинённом предложении, начинающееся с that)

Example: to prefer Пример: предпочитать

[Здесь смысл не меняется]

I prefer to live in an apartment. Я предпочитаю жить в квартире
I prefer living in an apartment. Я предпочитаю проживаниие в квартире

А. Verbs where there is little or no difference in meaning:

В . Глаголы, после которых употребление герундия или инфинитива (почти) не меняет смысла

allow позволять
attempt пытаться
begin начинать
bother беспокоить
cease прекращать
continue продолжать

deserve заслуживать
fear* бояться
hate* ненавидеть
intend* намереваться
like любить (нравиться)
love любить (кото-то)

neglect пренебрегать
omit опускать, пропускать
permit позволять
prefer* предпочитатть
recommend* рекомендовать
start начинать

Notes: Прмечания:

1. Allow is used in these two patterns:

1. Глагол Allow (=позволять, допускать) используется в двух конструкциях :

a. Allow + object + to-infinitive:

а. Allow + дополнение + to-инфинитив:

  • Her parents allowed her to go to the party.
  • Её родители разрешили ей пойти на вечеринку
  • b. Allow + герундий:

  • Her parents don’t allow smoking in the house.
  • Её родители не разрешают её курить дома (= . курение дома)
  • 2. Deserve + gerund is not very common, but is mainly used with passive constructions or where there is a passive meaning:

    2. Deserve = заслуживать, быть достойным чего-то. Конструкция Deserve +герундий встречается нечасто, в основном со страдательным (пассивным) залогом или в страдательном смысле:

  • Your proposals deserve being considered in detail.
  • Ваши предложения заслуживают подробного рассмотрения
  • These ideas deserve discussing. (= to be discussed).
  • Эти идеи заслуживают обсуждения (= того, чтобы их обсудили)
  • 3. The verbs hate, love, like, prefer are usually followed by a gerund when the meaning is general, and by a to-infinitive when they refer to a particular time or situation. You must always use the to-infinitive with the expressions ‘would love to’, ‘would hate to’, etc.

    3. После глаголов hate (=ненавидеть) , love(=любить), like(=мне нравится) , prefer(=предпочитать) ставят герундий , если эти глаголы имеют общий смысл . Если же они относятся к конкретному времени и мест у , то после них ставят to-инфинитив. После выражениий ‘would love to’ (= очень хотел бы. ), ‘would hate to’ (= совершенно не хотел бы. ) всегда используйте только инфинитив

    Compare: Сравните:

  • I hate to tell you, but Uncle Jim is coming this weekend.
  • Очень не хочется говорить тебе об этом, но на выходные к нам приезжает дядя Джим
  • I hate looking after elderly relatives!
  • Очень не люблю ухаживать за престарелыми родственниками
  • I love dancing.
  • Я люблю танцевать
  • I would love to dance with you.
  • Я хотел бы (с)танцевать с вами
  • B. Verbs where there is a clear difference in meaning:
    Глаголы , после которых употребление инфинитива и герундия даёт разный смысл

    Verbs marked with an asterisk* can also be followed by a that-clause.
    Напомним, что после глаголов, помеченных *, может также идти that-придаточное (придаточное в сложносочинённом предложении, начинающееся с that)

    come приходить
    forget* забывать
    go on продолжать(ся)

    mean* означать, иметь в виду
    regret* сожалеть
    remember* помнить

    audiorazgovornik.ru

    Grammar, Vocabulary & Pronunciation

    Wolfgang Drescher from Germany writes:

    What is the difference between:

    President Bush has announced a plan to help prevent the spread of the AIDS virus.
    President Bush has announced a plan to help to prevent the spread of the AIDS virus.

    to-infinitive or bare infinitive

    Help is a verb that can be used with or without to and with or without an object before the infinitive. When we use it without an infinitive it sometimes sounds more informal. Compare the following:

    Could you help me to look for my car keys? I can’t find them anywhere.

    Could you help me look for my car keys? I can’t find them anywhere.

    Would you like to help to cook dinner tonight? It’s late and I’m feeling tired.

  • Would you like to help cook dinner tonight? It’s late and I’m feeling tired.
  • There are one or two other structures where to-infinitive and the bare infinitive are both possible. Expressions with do or did, such as what I’ve done or all I did can follow either pattern.

    I hate shopping so what I’ve done is (to) order a new computer over the Internet.

  • All I did was (to) suggest that she should lend him no more money. I didn’t insist on it.
  • When two infinitive structures are connected by and, or or, except or but and than or as, it is normal practice to omit to in the second clause. Compare the following:

    I would like you to tidy the house and (to) wash the dishes before I get home.

    Would you prefer to have a snack now or (to) wait until later before we eat?

    I could find nothing to do this afternoon, except read my book.
    My son does nothing but watch TV when he gets home from school.

    It’s quicker to bike to the station rather than take the car.

  • I have to fix breakfast for everybody as well as take the children to school before I can leave for work.
  • Bare infinitive only

    Generally speaking, bare infinitive structures are much less common than to-infinitive structures, but after certain verbs they are necessary.

    We use the infinitive without to after modal auxiliary verbs will, shall, would, could, can (but not be able to), may, might, must (but not have to), should (but not ought to), and needn’t, (but not need to, which behaves like a normal verb). Compare the following:

      I can’t agree with you on this, though I would like to be able to help you.

    You must finish your own work before you go out, but you don’t have to help your sister.

    It will be hot and sunny today so you should put on plenty of sunscreen and you ought to wear a hat.

  • He needn’t take time off work, but he needs to rest in the evenings and get a good night’s sleep before he sets off on the new expedition.
  • After the object after certain verbs, such as hear, see, make, let, there is no to:

    I saw him pour the medicine down the loo and I heard him laugh to himself.

    I cannot make you take this medication, I can only ask you to take it.

  • I can’t let you go to bed hungry. You must let me prepare you some supper.
  • After verbal idioms would rather and had better there is no to:

  • I’d rather swimin the pool than go down to the beach.
    Geoffrey has just driven up in his car. You’d better see what he wants.
  • All of these, however, represent exceptions to the general rule. Most infinitive structures begin with to:

  • I decided to leave work early. I intended to be home before six. And I had arranged to play tennis with Joan in the evening.
  • www.bbc.co.uk

    When to Use Gerunds and Infinitives: 5 Simple Rules for English Learners

    What is your hobby?

    What do you love doing?

    Going to the beach? Playing video games? Hiking (walking)? Singing? Dancing?

    Nice! These are all examples of gerunds.

    Now, what if I ask you what you want to do every day?

    Maybe you are learning to draw. Maybe all you want to do is to read comic books. Maybe you are planning to start your own business. Or maybe you will soon decide to travel the world!

    These are also hobbies, aren’t they? But we used infinitives to describe them.

    Gerunds and infinitives are very common in the English language. They can be used in many situations. Sometimes you may use an infinitive and a gerund. Sometimes you have to choose between the two, because using one may be completely wrong.

    Does it get confusing? Yes it does!

    So how do you know when to use an infinitive and when to use a gerund? Our five simple rules are sure to help! Let’s start with explaining what infinitives and gerunds are.

    What Is an Infinitive? What Is a Gerund?

    An infinitive is the verb form that has “to” at the beginning. For example, “to do,” “to sleep,” “to love” and “to create.” It is the simplest verb form that you have to modify to fit into sentences.

    For example, “She sleeps” no longer contains the infinitive of the verb “to sleep.” Instead, it has been conjugated into the simple present third person form of the verb “to sleep”: sleeps.

    Infinitives are easy!

    How about gerunds?

    Gerunds are formed by adding “-ing” to the verb: “sleeping,” “drawing,” “swimming.” But they are not the “-ing” verb forms that you see in the present or past continuous tense. They look the same, but gerunds are actually verb forms used as nouns.

    Let’s take the infinitive of the verb “to sleep” and use it in two different sentences:

    I am sleeping.

    This is the present continuous. “Sleeping” here is part of the verb. It is not a gerund. Here’s the second sentence:

    I don’t like sleeping.

    This is present simple, but it contains a gerund. “Sleeping” is the direct object of this sentence.

    Now that you know the difference between infinitives and gerunds, let’s introduce the rules that will help you use both correctly.

    While the rules below will help you understand how infinitives and gerunds should be used, you should make sure to practice them so you can use them in real life. One easy way to do this is by learning with FluentU videos—which include movie trailers, music videos, news and other types of fun real-world videos. FluentU videos come with interactive captions that tell you the definition of any word, and also show you how that word can be used in a sentence.

    5 Simple Rules to Master the Use of Gerunds and Infinitives

    Rule 1: Gerunds can be used as a subject of a sentence.

    Take a look at some examples.

    Walking is good for your health.

    Making friends has become more difficult since I moved to a new city.

    Becoming a millionaire is a dream of many young people today.

    Here, the gerunds (in bold) are part of the sentence subjects (“walking,” “making friends,” “becoming a millionaire”). All three sentences sound like normal, everyday English.

    Now read these two sentences:

    To be or not to be—that is the question.”

    To mourn a mischief that is past and gone is the next way to draw new mischief on.”

    (Both sentences are quotes from William Shakespeare’s works.)

    They sound formal, don’t they? They are poetic, aren’t they? Shakespeare is one of the greatest authors of all time, but his English is famously difficult to understand. And that’s because it is literature. It is formal and it is art.

    In those two quotes, the infinitives “to be” and “to mourn” are used as the sentence subjects.

    So, it is possible to use both infinitives and gerunds as subjects, but gerunds are much more commonly used as subjects. Just pay attention to how the choice reflects on the tone and meaning of your sentences.

    Rule 2: Both gerunds and infinitives can be used as objects of a sentence.

    “I enjoy drawing.”

    You may also say:

    “Yesterday, I decided to draw.”

    Both sentences are correct, but one has an infinitive as the object and the other has a gerund as the object.

    What is the difference?

    It’s the verbs that precede (come before) the object! Some verbs require a gerund and some will require an infinitive. In the above examples, we can see that the formula is “enjoy” + [gerund] and “decide” + [infinitive].

    With practice, you will be able to remember which one is which.

    Here are a few examples of verbs that need to be followed by an infinitive:

  • agree: I agreed to go to a party with my friend.
    • decide: The president decided not to participate in the discussions.
    • deserve: Everyone deserves to be respected.
    • expect: I expect to know my exam grade by tomorrow.
    • hope: We were hoping to avoid traffic by leaving early.
    • learn: He learned not to trust anyone.
    • need: She needs to learn how to cook.
    • offer: I offered to help my brother with homework.
    • plan: We are planning to watch a movie tonight.
    • promise: My friend promised to find the time to help me move.
    • seem: We seem to be lost.
    • wait: I cannot wait to see my family.
    • want: I don’t want to go to bed yet.
    • There are lots of verbs that require an infinitive after. You will learn them naturally, as you progress in your English studies.

      And here are a few examples of verbs that need to be followed by a gerund:

    • admit: They admitted changing the schedule.
    • advise: I advise proceeding (moving forward) with caution.
    • avoid: She avoided looking me in the eye.
    • consider (think about): I considered staying silent, but I had to tell her.
  • deny: I denied knowing about his secret.
  • involve: The course involved writing three tests.
  • mention (say something): She mentioned seeing my brother at a baseball game.
  • recommend: I recommend practicing gerunds and infinitives.
  • risk: Don’t risk losing your job!
  • suggest: I suggest reading more English short stories.
  • Rule 3: Infinitives should be used after many adjectives.

    Here are three sample sentences that will help to illustrate this rule:

    It is not easy to graduate from university.

    It is necessary to speak English to work in a hotel.

    It is wonderful to have close friends.

    When you describe something with an adjective (underlined in the examples above), an infinitive should follow (in bold). Using gerunds here would be incorrect.

    But remember! If you want to make that object into a subject (see Rule 1), a gerund should be used:

    Graduating from university is not easy.

    Speaking English is necessary to work in a hotel.

    Having close friends is wonderful.

    How else do you know if an adjective should be followed by an infinitive? The construct “too + [adjective]” is another way to tell!

    This dress is too big to wear.

    This car is too expensive to buy.

    And the same is true about “[adjective] + enough”:

    My child is not tall enough to ride this rollercoaster.

    The course was detailed enough to widen his knowledge base.

    This rule is useful enough to understand the usage of infinitives!

    Rule 4: Only infinitives are used after sentence objects that are nouns or pronouns referring to a person.

    “We asked her not to go.”

    In this sentence, “we” is the subject, “asked” is the verb and “her” is the objective form of the pronoun “she.” You must use an infinitive (“to go”), never a gerund, after direct and indirect objects referring to people.

    To remember this rule, you will have to study verbs that take an object and an infinitive.

    Start with these examples. The objects (nouns and pronouns) are underlined. Notice how the underlined objects are all followed by infinitives.

  • ask: Can I ask you to help me with something?
  • expect: I never expected him to become famous.
  • hire (give a job to someone): Did the company hire you just to sit in your office?
  • invite: I invited a friend to attend the ceremony.
  • order: She ordered the child to stay at home.
  • remind: Please remind me to wash the dishes.
  • require: The test required him to concentrate fully.
  • teach: That will teach you to follow the rules!
  • tell: Who told you to come here?
  • urge: They urged me to continue my research.
  • warn: I am warning you not to do this!
  • Rule 5: Only gerunds are used after prepositions (with one exception).

    Consider this sentence:

    I talked him out of taking that job.

    Here, the gerund “taking” follows the preposition “of.”

    Prepositions can follow any word, be it a noun, a pronoun, a verb or an adjective. In the examples below, the prepositions are underlined, followed by the gerunds in bold.

    A preposition that follows a noun:

    Novels about growing up are popular among teenagers.

    I have an interest in becoming a painter.

    A preposition that follows a pronoun:

    I forgive you for not telling the truth.

    A preposition that follows a verb:

    She is thinking about trying martial arts.

    He looks forward to meeting his cousins.

    A preposition that follows an adjective:

    I am wary of going alone.

    My mom is scared of flying.

    There is one exception. Thankfully, it should be easy to remember!

    The exception

    “But” is a short word that connects two clauses of a sentence together. It is called a conjunction. Sometimes, “but” can also play a role of a preposition. When “but” is used as a preposition, it is the same in meaning as “except.”

    If “but” or “except” are used like this, they need to be followed by an infinitive:

    I had no choice but to follow her.
    (I had to follow her.)

    Mary made no stops on the way except to get gas.
    (Mary only stopped to get gas.)

    There is nothing left for me to do but to collect my money and go.
    (I only have to collect my money and go.)

    You may not see “but” and “except” used this way often. Just follow the rule of gerunds after prepositions, and you will get it right most of the time!

    Gerunds and infinitives may be confusing, but they make your English speech more varied and colorful. It is very useful to study them and practice using them correctly. The more you notice gerunds and infinitives in your study of the English language, the easier it will get!

    Sometimes you will be unsure if you need to use an infinitive or a gerund in a sentence. In this situation, try changing the sentence and saying what you want to say in a different way.

    Practicing is how you become more fluent. It is important to practice.

    If you liked this post, something tells me that you’ll love FluentU, the best way to learn English with real-world videos.

    www.fluentu.com

    I like swimming (I am fond of swimming).

    I hate interrupting people.

    They prefer staying indoors when the weather is cold.

    I shouldn’t like to swim in this lake.

    I hate to interrupt you, but I have to.

    I’d prefer to stay at home in this cold weather.

    2. With the verbs to begin andto starteither form may generally be used, but again the gerund is preferable when the action is more general.

    She began singing when a child.

    She went over to the piano and began to sing.

    No gerund is used:

    a) when the finite verb is in the continuous form.

    He is beginning to study French.

    It’s beginning to rain.

    b) with the verbs to understand and to see (meaning to understand).

    He began to understandhow it was done.

    c) when the subject denotes a thing, not a living being.

    The doors began to creak.

    The clock began to strike.

    3. The verb to remember is followed by a gerund when it means a prior action (to recall, to keep in one’s memory some past event), and by an infinitive when it means a simultaneous action (the working of one’s memory).

    I remembered posting the letters.

    (Я помнил, что опустил письмо).

    I remembered to post the letters. =

    I remembered and posted.

    (Я не забыл опустить письмо).

    The same refers to the verb to forget.

    I shall never forget hearing him sing

    (Я никогда не забуду как он пел).

    Don’t forget to post the letters!

    I didn’t forget to post the letters.

    (Я не забыл опустить письма).

    4. The verb to regretis followed by the gerund to suggest priority, whereas the infinitive suggests a simultaneous action.

    I regret not having worked harder at the language as a boy.

    (Я сожалею, что не учил как следует языка в детстве).

    I regret following his advice.

    (Я сожалею, что последовал его совету).

    I regret to inform you.

    (С сожалением сообщаю вам это).

    I regret to have to inform you.

    (Сожалею, что вынужден сообщить вам это).

    5. a) after to stop the gerund is used when it suggests the end of the action denoted by the gerund, whereas the infinitive is used as an adverbial of purpose.

    I stopped talking.

    I stopped to talk to a friend of mine

    (Я остановилась, чтобы поговорить с другом).

    b) The phrasal verb to go onwith a gerund suggests the continuation of the action, denoted by the gerund and forms part of a compound verbal predicate; an infinitive points out a new stage in the sequence of actions.

    The teacher went on explaining the use of verbals (continued).

    The teacher went on to explain he use of the gerund after some verbs.

    (. объяснял одно правило за дру­гим . т. е. употребление герун­дия после разных глаголов).

    6. The verb to allow is used with a gerund when it is not followed by an indirect object.

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